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时间2016-09-28 11:15:43

Section  Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that their memory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can't remember   1   we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance's name, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain    2   , we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments."   3   seemingly innocent, this loss of mental focus can potentially have a(an)   4   impact on our professional, social, and personal   5   .
Neuroscientists, experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there's actually a lot that can be done. It   6   out that the brain needs exercise in much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental   7   can significantly improve our basic cognitive   8   . Thinking is essentially a   9   of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to   10   in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.   11   , because these connections are made through effort and practice, scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate   12   mental effort.
Now, a new Web-based company has taken it a step   13   and developed the first "brain training program" designed to actually help people improve and regain their mental   14   .
The Web-based program   15   you to systematically improve your memory and attention skills. The program keeps   16   of your progress and provides detailed feedback   17   your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it    18   modifies and enhances the games you play to   19   on the strengths you are developing--much like a(n)   20   exercise routine requires you to increase resistance and vary your muscle use.

1.[A]where [B]when [C]that [D]why
2.[A]improves [B]fades [C]recovers [D]collapses
3.[A]If [B]Unless [C]Once [D]While
4.[A]uneven [B]limited [C]damaging [D]obscure
5.[A]wellbeing [B]environment [C]relationship [D]outlook
6.[A]turns [B]finds [C]points [D]figures
7.[A]roundabouts [B]responses [C]workouts [D]associations
8.[A]genre [B]functions [C]circumstances [D]criterion
9.[A]channel [B]condition [C]sequence [D]process
10.[A]persist [B]believe [C]excel [D]feature
11.[A]Therefore [B]Moreover [C]Otherwise [D]However
12.[A]according to [B]regardless of [C]apart from [D]instead of
13.[A]back [B]further [C]aside [D]around
14.[A]sharpness [B]stability [C]framework [D]flexibility
15.[A]forces [B]reminds [C]hurries [D]allows
16.[A]hold [B]track [C]order [D]pace
17.[A] to [B]with [C]for [D]on
18.[A]irregularly [B]habitually [C]constantly [D]unusually
19.[A]carry [B]put [C]build [D]take
20.[A]risky [B]effective [C]idle [D]familiar
答案:1-5   ABDCA   6-10  ACBDC    11-15  DABAD   16-20  BDCCB
1. [标准答案] [A]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和连词辨析
[选项分析] 本题考查连词。根据上下文意思,首先可以排除[B][C][D]。这句话中 where 引导一个状语语从句,主要是说记不清把钥匙放在哪里了。
2. [标准答案] [B]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析
[选项分析] As the brain    2   we refer to these occurrences as "senior moments这句话的意思是“由于大脑    2   我们称这些现象为“瞬间性老年痴呆”,由此可以排除[A] 和 [C]。[D]collapse意为:使倒塌,使崩溃,不符合题意。fades考察熟词僻意,通常意思为褪色,逝去。还有衰老的意思,这里就考察是衰老的意思。从前文可以看出,文章讲的是随着年龄增长,大脑衰老。所以选[B]
3. [标准答案] [D]
[考点分析] 逻辑衔接题
[选项分析] [A] if 表示假设“如果”。[B] Unless “除非,如果不”。[C]Once “一旦”。[D]While,“虽然,然而”表转折。这句话的意思是虽然表面上看起来没什么,但是危害很大,前后位转折关系,所以选D。
4. [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 这四个选项均为形容词,[A] 表示“不均匀”, [B] 表示“有限的”, [C] 表示“有破坏性的,损坏的”, [D] 表示“模糊的,晦涩的”。这句话意思是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们带来……的影响。根据上下文的意思,可以排除 [A] 和 [D]。而“有限的影响”显然不足以表达危害的严重性,故可以排除[B] 选项。[C] “带来有害的影响”最符合作者意图。
5. [标准答案] [A]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析
[选项分析] 本句话含义是这种精神能量的缺失会给我们的职业、社交还有个人……带来有害的影响。[A] wellbeing “幸福”。[B]environment “环境”。[C] relationship “关系”。[D] outlook “展望”。and连接若干名词,这些名词应该为同一类,职业、社交都是和个人相关,排除[B] 和[D],[C] personal relationship就是social的意思,不能重复,选择[A],个人幸福。
6. [标准答案] [A]
[考点分析] 固定搭配
[选项分析] [A] it turns out that “原来,其实” 。[B]it finds out that“本文发现”。[C] it points out that“指出”。[D] it figures out that“本文发现”。It代表神经科学,这句话的意思是越来越多的精神学家们都表示,大脑其实跟肌肉一样需要练习运动。这里给出的是神经科学的结论,因此选择it turns out that
7.  [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析
[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] roundabouts迂回路线。[B]responses回应。[C]workouts锻炼,练习。[D]associations协会。[C]workouts锻炼,练习与前文出现的exercise都有“锻炼,练习”的意思,近义词复现,所以选[C]
8.  [标准答案] [B]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析
[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A]genre类型,种类。[B]functions功能。[C]circumstances情况,环境。[D]criterion批评判断的标准、准则。这句话的意思是正确的智力运动能极大地提高我们最基本的认知功能,根据语义,选择[B]functions功能。
9.  [标准答案] [D]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和名词辨析
[选项分析] 这四个选项均为名词。[A] channel通道,频道。[B]condition条件。[C]sequence顺序,序列。[D]process过程,步骤。根据常识,思考是一个过程,并且通过脑神经相互接触来完成,其他选项表示渠道、序列、条件,均不符合常识。因此正确答案是表示过程的[D]选项。这句话的意思是思考是大脑神经连接必要的过程。
10.  [标准答案] [D]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和动词辨析
[选项分析] 这四个选项均为动词。[A] persist坚持。[B] believe相信。[C] excel超过。[D] feature特色。本句句意,在某种程度来讲,我们在进行神经连接(直接影响人的聪明程度)方面的特殊能力是与生俱来的。excel 有超过擅长的意思,表示在某个方面出众,放在此处符合题意,因此正确答案为[B]。
11.  [标准答案] [D]
[考点分析] 逻辑衔接题
[选项分析] 本题需要的是一个副词,而且位于句首,因此考察的是句关系。通过前后句意义来定答案,前一句强调的是智力是与生俱来的(inherited),而后一句则认为是可以通过脑力活动(mental effort)会有所波动,两句意义明显相反,故正确答案为[D] However。
12.  [标准答案] [A]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和短语辨析
[选项分析] 本题并不难,可以理解为:智力可以……脑力活动得到提升或出现波动。 [B]regardless of “不管,不顾”不合逻辑。[C]apart from“除……之外”也不合适。[D]instead of “代替”明显不符。故[A]为正确答案。
13.  [标准答案] [B]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配
[选项分析] 本题考察的是固定搭配:take a step ……,能搭配只有A和C,分别指“采取进一步措施”和“让到一边去”,无论从逻辑上还是从句意上都是A符合。
14.  [标准答案] [A]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 本题考察的是动宾搭配:improve and regain sb’s mental ……,再根据前文一直在讲如何提高“智力”,因此可以排除A(模式)和B(稳定性),C(灵活性)和D(锋利性,尖锐性)容易混淆,C有一定的干扰性,但双比之下,D更契合前文,故选D。
15.  [标准答案] [D]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说这个网络课程可以_____系统地改善你的记忆力和注意力。而且此处需要填入的动词需要与to进行搭配。根据搭配关系直接排除A,B。本文的主题介绍的是使人聪明的脑力锻炼法,感情色彩是中性的,此处的D选项force排除,所以最恰当的是D。
16.  [标准答案] [B]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和固定搭配
[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说这个培训课程还可以_____学习进度,并且给予详尽的信息反馈。根据语境,空格缺少的词汇意义为跟踪学习进度,分析四个选项,直接排除A hold, C order; 辨析B,D两个选项,与D选项的pace搭配的介词应该为with,即,keep pace with,所以排除,B选项为正确答案,keep track of 意思为跟踪。
17.  [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和介词
[选项分析] 本题考查介词,根据空格前后语境,空格所缺少的介词意义为关于你的表现作出详细的反馈,四个选项中只有D有关于的意思。
18.  [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说更加重要的是,它会_____调整并升级有关训练游戏。通过前后句的语境,所用词汇均为褒义词,所以,从感情色彩方面可以排除A,B习惯性的主语应该为人,直接排除。B经常的,D异乎寻常的代入,发现C比较符合题意。
19.  [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 空格所在句的意思是说它会经常调整并升级有关训练游戏,以促进脑力的不断____。本题所缺少的动词需要与介词on 搭配,A put on 穿上,增加;B carry on 执行;C build on 在……基础上增加,构建;D take on 呈现;代入空格发现只有C适合,A,B,D都不与空格后面的development 相搭配。
20.  [标准答案] [C]
[考点分析] 上下文语义和词汇辨析
[选项分析] 本题涉及的是一个含不定式作后定的句子,所缺词汇为形容词修饰exercise routine,根据前后情感一致的逻辑,通过后面的不定式中的关键词increase寺和vary your muscle use等信息反推所需词汇为正向词汇,直接排除A和B,D是中性,只有C(有效的)符合逻辑,故为正确答案。
Section  Reading Comprehension
Part A
DirectionsRead the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Text 1
In order to “change lives for the better” and reduce “dependency,” George Osbome, Chancellor of the Exchequer, introduced the “upfront work search” scheme. Only if the jobless arrive at the job centre with a CV register for online job search, and start looking for work will they be eligible for benefit-and then they should report weekly rather than fortnightly. What could be more reasonable?
More apparent reasonableness followed. There will now be a seven-day wait for the jobseeker’s allowance. “Those first few days should be spent looking for work, not looking to sign on.” he claimed. “We’re doing these things because we know they help people say off benefits and help those on benefits get into work faster” Help? Really? On first hearing, this was the socially concerned chancellor, trying to change lives for the better, complete with “reforms” to an obviously indulgent system that demands too little effort from the newly unemployed to find work, and subsides laziness. What motivated him, we were to understand, was his zeal for “fundamental fairness”-protecting the taxpayer, controlling spending and ensuring that only the most deserving claimants received their benefits.
Losing a job is hurting: you don’t skip down to the jobcentre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state. It is financially terrifying psychologically embarrassing and you know that support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you support is minimal and extraordinarily hard to get. You are now not wanted; you are now excluded from the work environment that offers purpose and structure in your life. Worse, the crucial income to feed yourself and your family and pay the bills has disappeared. Ask anyone newly unemployed what they want and the answer is always: a job.
But in Osborneland, your first instinct is to fall into dependency- permanent dependency if you can get it-supported by a state only too ready to indulge your falsehood. It is as though 20 years of ever- tougher reforms of the job search and benefit administration system never happened. The principle of British welfare is no longer that you can insure yourself against the risk of unemployment and receive unconditional payments if the disaster happens. Even the very phrase ‘jobseeker’s allowance’-invented in 1996- is about redefining the unemployed as a “jobseeker” who had no mandatory right to a benefit he or she has earned through making national insurance contributions. Instead, the claimant receives a time-limited “allowance,” conditional on actively seeking a job; no entitlement and no insurance, at £71.70 a week, one of the least generous in the EU.
21.  George Osborne’s scheme was intended to ___________.
[A]provide the unemployed with easier access to benefits.
[B]encourage jobseekers’ active engagement in job seeking.
[C]motivate the unemployed to report voluntarily.
[D]guarantee jobseekers’ legitimate right to benefits.
22. The phrase “to sign on” (Line 3,Para.2) most probably means
[A]to check on the availability of jobs at the jobcentre.
[B]to accept the government’s restrictions on the allowance.
[C]to register for an allowance from the government.
[D]to attend a governmental job-training program.
23. What promoted the chancellor to develop his scheme?
[A] A desire to secure a better life for all.
[B] An eagerness to protect the unemployed.
[C] An urge to be generous to the claimants.
[D] A passion to ensure fairness for taxpayers.
24. According to Paragraph 3, being unemployed makes one feel
25. To which of the following would the author most probably agree?
[A]The British welfare system indulges jobseekers’ laziness.
[B]Osborne’s reforms will reduce the risk of unemployment.
[C]The jobseekers’ allowance has met their actual needs.
[D]Unemployment benefits should not be made conditional.
Text 2
  All around the world, lawyers generate more hostility than the members of any other profession---with the possible exception of journalism. But there are few places where clients have more grounds for complaint than America.
   During the decade before the economic crisis, spending on legal services in America grew twice as fast as inflation. The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. But most law graduates never get a big-firm job. Many of them instead become the kind of nuisance-lawsuit filer that makes the tort system a costly nightmare.
   There are many reasons for this. One is the excessive costs of a legal education. There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree at one of 200 law schools authorized by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam. This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts. Law-school debt means that they have to work fearsomely hard.
  Reforming the system would help both lawyers and their customers. Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them. One idea is to allow people to study law as an undergraduate degree. Another is to let students sit for the bar after only two years of law school. If the bar exam is truly a stern enough test for a would-be lawyer, those who can sit it earlier should be allowed to do so. Students who do not need the extra training could cut their debt mountain by a third.
The other reason why costs are so high is the restrictive guild-like ownership structure of the business. Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow. There is pressure for change from within the profession, but opponents of change among the regulators insist that keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.
In fact, allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency. After all, other countries, such as Australia and Britain, have started liberalizing their legal professions. America should follow.
26. A lot of students take up law as their profession due to
[A]the growing demand from clients.
[B]the increasing pressure of inflation.
[C]the prospect of working in big firms.
[D]the attraction of financial rewards.
27. Which of the following adds to the costs of legal education in most American states?
[A]Higher tuition fees for undergraduate studies.
[B]Admissions approval from the bar association.
[C]Pursuing a bachelor’s degree in another major.
[D]Receiving training by professional associations.
28. Hindrance to the reform of the legal system originates from
[A]lawyers’ and clients’ strong resistance.
[B]the rigid bodies governing the profession.
[C]the stem exam for would-be lawyers.
[D]non-professionals’ sharp criticism.
29. The guild-like ownership structure is considered “restrictive” partly because it
[A]bans outsiders’ involvement in the profession.
[B]keeps lawyers from holding law-firm shares.
[C]aggravates the ethical situation in the trade.
[D]prevents lawyers from gaining due profits.
30. In this text, the author mainly discusses
[A]flawed ownership of America’s law firms and its causes.
[B]the factors that help make a successful lawyer in America.
[C]a problem in America’s legal profession and solutions to it.
[D]the role of undergraduate studies in America’s legal education.
Text 3
The US$3-million Fundamental physics prize is indeed an interesting experiment, as Alexander Polyakov said when he accepted this year’s award in March. And it is far from the only one of its type. As a News Feature article in Nature discusses, a string of lucrative awards for researchers have joined the Nobel Prizes in recent years. Many, like the Fundamental Physics Prize, are funded from the telephone-number-sized bank accounts of Internet entrepreneurs. These benefactors have succeeded in their chosen fields, they say, and they want to use their wealth to draw attention to those who have succeeded in science.
What’s not to like? Quite a lot, according to a handful of scientists quoted in the News Feature. You cannot buy class, as the old saying goes, and these upstart entrepreneurs cannot buy their prizes the prestige of the Nobels. The new awards are an exercise in self-promotion for those behind them, say scientists. They could distort the achievement-based system of peer-review-led research. They could cement the status quo of peer-reviewed research. They do not fund peer-reviewed research. They perpetuate the myth of the lone genius.
The goals of the prize-givers seem as scattered as the criticism. Some want to shock, others to draw people into science, or to better reward those who have made their careers in research.
As Nature has pointed out before, there are some legitimate concerns about how science prizes—both new and old—are distributed. The Breakthrough Prize in Life Sciences, launched this year, takes an unrepresentative view of what the life sciences include. But the Nobel Foundation’s limit of three recipients per prize, each of whom must still be living, has long been outgrown by the collaborative nature of modern research—as will be demonstrated by the inevitable row over who is ignored when it comes to acknowledging the discovery of the Higgs boson. The Nobels were, of course, themselves set up by a very rich individual who had decided what he wanted to do with his own money. Time, rather than intention, has given them legitimacy.
As much as some scientists may complain about the new awards, two things seem clear. First, most researchers would accept such a prize if they were offered one. Second, it is surely a good thing that the money and attention come to science rather than go elsewhere, It is fair to criticize and question the mechanism—that is the culture of research, after all—but it is the prize-givers’ money to do with as they please. It is wise to take such gifts with gratitude and grace.
31. The Fundamental Physical Prize is seen as
[A]a symbol of the entrepreneurs’ wealth.
[B]a possible replacement of the Nobel Prize.
[C]an example of bankers’ investment.
[D]a handsome reward for researchers.
32. The critics think that the new awards will most benefit
[A]the profit-oriented scientists.
[B]the founders of the new award.
[C]the achievement-based system.
[D]peer-review-led research.
33. The discovery of the Higgs boson is a typical case which involves
[A] controversies over the recipients’ status.
[B] the joint effort of modern researchers.
[C] legitimate concerns over the new prizes.
[D] the demonstration of research findings.
34. According to Paragraph 4, which of the following is true of the Nobels?
[A]Their endurance has done justice to them.
[B]Their legitimacy has long been in dispute.
[C]They are the most representative honor.
[D]History has never cast doubt on them.
35. The author believed that the new awards are
[A]acceptable despite the criticism.
[B]harmful to the culture of research.
[C]subject to undesirable changes.
[D]unworthy of public attention.
 Text 4
“The Heart of the Matter,” the just-released report by the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), deserves praise for affirming the importance of the humanities and social sciences to the prosperity and security of liberal democracy in America. Regrettably, however, the report's failure to address the true nature of the crisis facing liberal education may cause more harm than good.
  In 2010, leading congressional Democrats and Republicans sent letters to the AAAS asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education."In response, the American Academy formed the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Among the commission's 51 members are top-tier-university presidents, scholars, lawyers, judges, and business executives, as well as prominent figures from diplomacy, filmmaking, music and journalism.
The goals identified in the report are generally admirable. Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. To encourage innovation and competition, the report calls for increased investment in research, the crafting of coherent curricula that improve students' ability to solve problems and communicate effectively in the 21st century, increased funding for teachers and the encouragement of scholars to bring their learning to bear on the great challenges of the day. The report also advocates greater study of foreign languages, international affairs and the expansion of study abroad programs.
  Unfortunately, despite 2½ years in the making, "The Heart of the Matter" never gets to the heart of the matter: the illiberal nature of liberal education at our leading colleges and universities. The commission ignores that for several decades America's colleges and universities have produced graduates who don't know the content and character of liberal education and are thus deprived of its benefits. Sadly, the spirit of inquiry once at home on campus has been replaced by the use of the humanities and social sciences as vehicles for publicizing "progressive," or left-liberal propaganda.
  Today, professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets or self-reliance —as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.
  The AAAS displays great enthusiasm for liberal education. Yet its report may well set back reform by obscuring the depth and breadth of the challenge that Congress asked it to illuminate.
36. According to Paragraph 1, what is the author’s attitude toward the AAAS’s report?
[A] Critical
[B] Appreciative
[C] Contemptuous
[D] Tolerant
37. Influential figures in the Congress required that the AAAS report on how to
  [A] retain people’s interest in liberal education.
  [B] define the government’s role in education.
  [C] keep a leading position in liberal education.
[D] safeguard individuals rights to education.
38. According to Paragraph 3, the report suggests
  [A] an exclusive study of American history.
  [B] a greater emphasis on theoretical subjects.
  [C] the application of emerging technologies.
[D] funding for the study of foreign languages.
39. The author implies in Paragraph 5 that professors are
  [A] supportive of free markets.
  [B] cautious about intellectual investigation.
  [C] conservative about public policy.
[D] biased against classical liberal ideas.
40. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
  [A] Ways to Grasp “The Heart of the Matter”
  [B] Illiberal Education and “The Heart of the Matter”
  [C] The AAAS’s Contribution to Liberal Education
  [D] Progressive Policy vs. Liberal Education
答案21-25  BCAAB   26-30  DCBAC  31-35 ABDAA  36-40  ABCBB
21. B 细节题。本道题的关键是intended to问的是目的,所以我们也应该去寻找体现目的性的词汇,所以在首段首句看到了in order to ,则后面的内容即为本题答案,结合后面找工作的内容则选择B选项。
22.C 词义句意题。先根据题干定位到第二段第三行,to sign on前面有一个很明显的not,则我们可以推知,这一定是前面的反义,我们只要读懂前面半部分就可以了,前面说应该spend looking for work,正好和A选项相符,所以我们只要选择一个相反的选项即可,则选择C选项。
23. A 细节题。本道题的关键是题目中的prompted和chancellor,根据chancellor能定位到二段第五行,再向下寻找则可发现motivate和prompt是对应的,所以看本句即可发现和A选项是对应的。
24. A 细节题。本道题根据unemployed回到文中定位在第三段的最后一句,没有感觉相关内容,所以需要向前找答案,再根据本段第一句话中的losing a job即可判定答案在第二句,因此选择A选项。另我们会发现BCD三个选项趋于强烈和负面,所以,我们选择A选项。
25. B 细节题。本题题根据选项定位。A选项根据大写字母The British welfare system定位到最后一段的第三句,原文是“no longer”,选项与原文反向干扰。B选项根据Osborne’s reforms定位到第一段第二句,可以得出该项目可减少失业危险,所以B为正确答案。C选项根据题干“the jobseekers’ allowance”定位到最后一段倒数第二句,该句提到“no fundamental right”,恰与C选项表意相反,所以C是反向干扰。D选项根据题干“conditional”定位到最后一段最后一句,其中只提到“conditional on actively seeking a job…”,并没有要说以后应该怎样,所以属于无中生有。
26. D 该题是因果细节题,考察细节。首先,根据段落定位原则模糊定位,定位到前几段。其次,再精确定位,题干中有关键词“students”“law”“profession”,回到原文寻找相关信息。第一段未发现相关信息,然后到第二段看到“The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools.”与题干有重合之处,选项D是该句的同义替换。A、B、C三个选项根据原文个别词汇“clients”“inflation”“big-firm”等进行干扰。注意,第一段的But是个假转折词,并非答案处。
27. C 该题是细节题,考察细节。首先根据段落定位原则定位到第三段。其次,根据题干关键词“the costs of legal education”精确定位到第三段第二句话“One is the excessive costs of a legal education.”问题是“which of the following adds to the costs of legal education”,因此定位句的下一句就是答案,即“There is just one path for a lawyer in most American states: a four-year undergraduate degree in some unrelated subject, then a three-year law degree at one of 200 law schools accredited by the American Bar Association and an expensive preparation for the bar exam.”分析选项可知,选项C恰当概况了该句子的涵义。A选项利用三段末尾的“This leaves today’s average law-school graduate with $100,000 of debt on top of undergraduate debts.”进行干扰。B选项无中生有。D选项根据四段最后一句出现的“training”个别词汇进行干扰。
28. B 该题是原因细节题,问来源。首先段落定位原则定位到第四段。其次,根据题干关键词“the reform of the legal system”定位到第二句“Sensible ideas have been around for a long time, but the state-level bodies that govern the profession have been too conservative to implement them.”选项B即为该句的同义替换。
29. A 该题为因果细节题,问原因。根据段落定位原则定位至倒数第二段。其次,题干中出现“the guild-like ownership structure”,精确定位到第二句“Except in the District of Columbia, non-lawyers may not own any share of a law firm. This keeps fees high and innovation slow.”此外,在该段最后一句提到“…keeping outsiders out of a law firm isolates lawyers from the pressure to make money rather than serve clients ethically.”从而可以得出答案选A。
30. C 该题为文章主旨题,考察文章中心。该篇文章属于问题解决型文章,前5段均在说美国法律职业存在的问题,最后一段提出了解决措施“allowing non-lawyers to own shares in law firms would reduce costs and improve services to customers, by encouraging law firms to use technology and to employ professional managers to focus on improving firms’ efficiency.”。因此,该篇属于问题解决型文章,选C。其他几个选项均为文中的个别细节,以偏概全。
31. A为细节题。根据题干中的Fundamental Physics Prize可以定位到第一段,但除此之外就没有其他细节提示信息了,所以我们只能根据几个选项去定位,分别根据选项中的entrepreneurs、Nobel Prize、investment、reward去定位,在第一段末句找到了与A选项相一致的句子,则判定A选项正确。
32. B 为细节题。根据题干中的critics定位到第三段,可知第二段没有出题,从第三段第二句可以得出本道题的正确选项,who have made their careers in research即为B选项中的The founders。
33. D 为细节题。本道题如果从题干中看更像是例证题,但题目中说道the case involves即问例子本身,所以为一道细节题。我们在第四段倒数第三句中找到了Higgs boson,定位到本句可以得知nature of modern research---as well as demonstrated by……即为本道题正确答案。
34. A 为判断题。此类题型是考试中的一个难点,在题干中提示信息非常少,所以我们需要根据每个选项分别定位。A选项的durance定位到本段最后一句time。B选项根据legitimacy定位到第一句。C选项没有提到。D选项从最后一段可以验证确实是收到了质疑,B选项和原文不符,可以得知答案为A。
35. A 为主旨题。本题属于作者观点,出在最后一段则说明更多体现了文章的主旨,因为还有一个段落对应,则我们可以在最后一段找答案,根据题干中的award我们可以得知全文的最后一句明确体现了作者的观点,故选A。
36. A 该题是细节态度题。并非考察全文的态度,也就是说要细节定位。根据题干定位原则,定位第一段AAAS出现之处,并且一定要找到表示评价的部分。该题迷惑性很强,因为文章在AAAS后面就又”praise”所以容易误导大家选择答案B “appreciative(欣赏的)”,但是我们应该看到有however,我们知道如果第一段出现转折,那此转折一定跟主旨有关。同时各个题都与主旨相关,所以这道题应该于主旨相关,后文中的“may cause more harm than good.”让我们知道它的还多余利,所以答案选择A,批判性的。
37. C 细节题。根据自然段定位原则,36题在第一段出题,38题在第三段出题,那37题在第二段出题的可能性就很大。同时题干定位”Influential figures in the Congress”与“leading congressional Democrats and Republicans”同义替换。定位的答案是asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and ….., individual benefactors and others" to "asking that it identify actions that could be taken by "federal, state and local governments, universities, foundations, educators, individual benefactors and others" to "maintain national excellence in humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “In humanities and social scientific scholarship and education. “也就是说答案重点在maintain national excellence 刚好与选项C 中的leading position 进行同义替换。ABD与文章不符合。
38. C 推理题。Suggest 是推理题的标志。先化选项关键词,发现选项A是讲American history选项B; 是讲theoretical subjects;选项C]emerging technologies;选项Dfunding foreign languages。返回原文定位的时候,A 选项中的“exclusive 排外”并没有在“stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government;”这句话中体现。B选项中的理论学科没有定位点。D选项与原文“increased funding for teachers”以及“greater study of foreign languages,”不符。属于张冠李戴。“encourages the use of new digital technologies.”与选项C 同义替换。
39. B 属于推理题。Implies是推理题的标志。同时根据提题干定位第五段,找professor. “professors routinely treat the progressive interpretation of history and progressive public policy as the proper subject of study while portraying conservative or classical liberal ideas—such as free markets, self-reliance —as falling outside the boundaries of routine, and sometimes legitimate, intellectual investigation.”A 选项中的free markets前面的修饰词语是conservative or liberal ideas 没有体现A 选项中的supportive。C选项中的conservative 与文中progressive public policy 不符合。D选项中biased 没有体现,故排除。所以选B。
40. B 主旨大意题。先看其他题题干,我们锁定关键词是report ,而report 就是“the heart of the matter “ 故排除C和D.而我们看A 发现文章并没有讲如何抓住“问题核心”的各个方法。排除A,选择B
Part B
The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize into a coherent text by choosing from the list A-G and filling them into the numbered boxes .Paragraphs A and E have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.10 points
[A] Some archaeological sites have always been easily observable—for example, the Parthenon in Athens, Greece; the pyramids of Giza in Egypt; and the megaliths of Stonehenge in southern England. But these sites are exceptions to the norm .Most archaeological sites have been located by means of careful searching, while many others have been discovered by accident. Olduvai Gorge, fell into its deep valley in 1911.Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the 1970s.
[B] In another case, American archaeologists Rene million and George Cowgill spent years systematically mapping the entire city of Teotihuacan in the valley of Mexico near what is now Mexico City .at its peak around AD 600, this city was one of the largest human settlements in the word. The researchers mapped not only the city’s vast and ornate ceremonial areas, but also hundreds of simpler apartment complexes where common people lived.
[C] How do archaeologists know where to find what they are looking for when there is nothing visible on the surface of the ground? Typically, they survey and sample (make test excavations on) large areas of terrain to determine where excavation will yield useful information. Surveys and test samples have also become important for understanding the larger landscapes that contain archaeological sites.
[D] Surveys can cover a single large settlement or entire landscapes. In one case, many researchers working around the ancient Maya city of Copán, Honduras, have located hundreds of small rural village and individual dwellings by using aerial photographs and by making surveys on foot. The resulting settlement maps show how the distribution and density of the rural population around the city changed dramatically between AD500 and 850, when Copán collapsed.
[E] To find their sites, archaeologists today rely heavily on systematic survey methods and a variety of high-technology tools and techniques. Airborne technologies, such as different types of radar and photographic equipment carried by airplanes or spacecraft, allow archaeologists to learn about what lies beneath the ground without digging. Aerial surveys locate general areas of interest or larger buried features, such as ancient buildings or fields.
[F] Most archaeological sites, however, are discovered by archaeologists who have set out to look for them. Such searches can take years. British archaeologist Howard Carter knew that the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen existed from information found in other sites. Carter sifted through rubble in the Valley of the King for seven years before he located the tomb in 1922. In the late 1800s British archaeologist Sir Arthur Eyan combed antique dealers’ stores in Athens, Greece. He was searching for thing engraved seals attributed to the ancient Mycenaean culture that dominated Greece from the 1400s to 1200s BC. Evas’s interpretations of those engravings eventually led them to find the Minoan palace at Knossos on the island of Crete, in 1900.
[G] Ground surveys allow archaeologists to pinpoint the places where digs will be successful. Most ground surveys involve a lot of walking, looking for surface clues such as small fragments of pottery. They often include a certain amounts of digging to test for buried materials at selected points across a landscape. Archaeologists also may locate buried remains by using such technologies as ground radar, magnetic-field recording, and metal detector. Archaeologists commonly use computers to map sites and the landscapes around sites. Two and three-dimensional maps are helpful tools in planning excavations, illustrating how sites look, and presenting the results of archaeological research.
41  --- A  --- 42. --- E  ---43  ---   44 ---   45
答案 41-45 CFGDB
41.首段,所以需要找寻综述性的段落。其中A和E选项是给出的,所以只需从余下选项进行选择。B选项中有another,所以不会是第一段。E选项中代词their没有指代对象。F中有however,也不会是第一段。因此,只留下C和D选项。在C选项最后一句提到survey和test sample也很重要。而在D选项开头就提到了survey,而且整段都是,由此可看出D是对C的分述。所以C是首段。
42. 此题排在A项之后,所以内容上应该是衔接的。A项主要谈论的是大部分考古地点是通过仔细搜寻之后找到的,而其他的很多是被偶然发现的,接着举了一些例子。接下来在看各段首句的时候,发现F项中提到大部分考古地点是被考古学家们特意寻找发现的,和A提到的偶然发现意思相反,所以F正确。
43. 此题排在E项之后。E选项最后一句提到天空的搜寻,而在G选项的开头提到地面搜寻,正好形成对应,所以为正确答案。
44. 此时,只留下B和D选项。其中B选项开头提到了in another case,所以前面一段一定要提到in one case, 而D选项中有in one case.所以,D选项在前。
45. 根据上面的分析,此题只能选B。
Part C
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written on the ANSWER SHEET(10 points)
Music means different things to different people and sometimes even different things to the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic, philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view, have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it is metaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical: sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysical message through physical means that is the strength of music.46) It is also the reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do is articulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself. 
Beethoven’s importance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature of his compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions of harmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break all signs of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in the last piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by the weight of convention. 47) By all accounts he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for the understanding, let alone the performance, of his works.
This courageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers of Beethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, for example in the use of dynamics. 48) Beethoven’s habit of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.  
Beethoven was a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was not interested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behavior and the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society.49) Especially significant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with the rights and responsibilities of the individual: he advocated freedom of thought and of personal expression.
Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos to order as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order does not result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence; order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greek ideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is not the last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that suffering does not have the last word. 50) One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living.
46. 这也是为什么当我们试图用语言来描述音乐时,我们只能明确表达我们对于音乐的感受,而不能完全理解音乐本身。
【句型分析】本句主句主干为it is the reason,why引导定语从句,修饰the reason。定语从句的主干是all we can do is articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself,其表语是不定式短语,由于主语中含有do,不定式符号to省略:articulate our reactions and not grasp music itself。our reactions之后to it为其定语,it指代music。定语从句中还包含when引导的时间状语从句。
②定语从句中,when引导时间状语从句,其中with words做状语,翻译时需调整语序到其修饰的to describe之前,可以表达为“当我们尝试用语言来描述音乐时”。定语从句的主干顺译即可,其中reaction根据语境,可以翻译为“感受”,其定语to it在表达时前置,it指代还原为“音乐”,则可以翻译为“所有我们能做的,就是明确表达我们对于音乐的感受”,或者调整表达为“我们只能明确表达我们对于音乐的感受”。and之后,grasp依据语境,需要翻译为“理解”
47. 人们普遍认为,他(贝多芬)是个思想自由、充满勇气的人,我发现勇气这一品质,是理解他作品的关键,更不必说是演出其作品的关键。
【句型分析】本句为并列句。第一个分句he was a freethinking person, and a courageous one,句首by all accounts为固定搭配,意思是“根据各方面说”。第二个分句的主干为I find courage an essential quality,其中宾语为courage,而an essential quality是宾语补足语。quality后介词短语for the understanding of his work为其定语,其中还包含一个插入结构let alone the performance。
【翻译要点】① 第一个分句结构比较简单,句首固定搭配by all accounts,可以调整表达,翻译为“据大家所说”。主干顺译即可,其中he指代“贝多芬”,one指代person。这一部分可以翻译为“贝多芬是个思想自由、充满勇气的人”。
②第二个分句,主干为“我发现勇气是一个关键品质”,quality后为其定语for the understanding of his work,其中the understanding of his work意思为“对于其作品的理解”,把词性转化后,可以表达为“理解其作品”,这个介词短语需要调整语序前置于quality,可以翻译为“理解他作品的关键品质”,则第二个分句可以表达为“我发现勇气,是理解他作品的关键品质”。还可以调整表达为“我发现勇气这一品质,是理解他作品的关键”。
③在定语for the understanding of his work中的插入成分,在逻辑上let alone并列the understanding和the performance,二者共用定语of his works,顺译句末即可:更不必说是演出其作品的关键品质。
48. 贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量,然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段,在他之前,作曲家很少使用这种方式。
【句型分析】本句主干为Beethoven’s habit was used by composers before him。本句的谓语为被动语态,主语habit后介词短语of increasing the volume with an extreme intensity and then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage为其定语,是由介词of与and并列的两个动名词短语increasing the volume with an extreme intensity 和then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage构成。
【翻译要点】①本句主干较为简单,但是主语habit后有很长的后置定语:Habit of increasing the volume…,其中“habit”可以词性转换为动词“习惯”,而中文常常先表达次要信息,则这一部分可以翻译一句话“贝多芬习惯增加…”,置于句首。第一个动名词短语中,with an extreme intensity为状语,表达时需调整语序到其修饰的increasing the volume前,根据语境,volume意思为“音量”,则increasing可以翻译为“增高”。这一部分可以翻译为“最大限度来逐渐增高音量”。第二个动名词短语then abruptly following it with a sudden soft passage,状语with a sudden soft passage需调整到following it前表达,其中passage根据语境,意思为“乐段”。则这一部分可以表达为“然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段”。整合本句主语与其定语,可以翻译为“贝多芬习惯最大限度来逐渐增高音量,然后突然跟上轻柔的乐段”。
49. 尤为重要的是贝多芬对于自由的看法,他认为,这种自由是与个人的权利和责任联系起来的:他倡导思想自由和个人言论自由。
【句型分析】本句为完全倒装,主句的主干是his view of freedom was Especially significant。
his view of freedom后为which引导的非限定性定语从句,修饰freedom,关系代词which在定语从句中作主语。of the individual修饰the rights and responsibilities,冒号后进行解释说明。
① 本句主干为完全倒装,但是在翻译时,顺译即可,其中his指代“贝多芬的”,主干可以表达为:尤为重要的是,他(贝多芬)对于自由的看法….。
② which引导定语从句,修饰freedom,表达时翻译成另一句话“对于他而言,这种自由是与个人的权利和责任联系起来的”,其中for him还可以调整表达为“他认为”。
【句型分析】本句主句主干为One could interpret much of the work of Beethoven,之后by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living为状语,修饰interpret。其中that引导宾语从句suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight it renders life worth living,为saying的宾语,宾语从句中it指代suffering。
Section III    Writing
Part A
51. Directions:
Write a letter of about 100 words to the president of your university, suggesting how to improve students’ physical condition.
You should include the details you think necessary.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET.
    Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use “Li Ming” instead.
    Do not write the address.(10 points)
称呼: Dear Mr. President,注意称呼中,所有实词首字母全部大写,Dear Mr. President后面的逗号不可丢,也不能写成冒号。
第一段:写作内容需涵盖两点:写信目的,表明建议;赞扬在前,建议在后。文章开头开门见山的表明了写信目的,用到了这样的表达It is my great honor to write to you. 第二句赞扬在前,建议在后。文中用到了这样的表达As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise.
第二段: 写作内容为建议细节。首先,希望学校能够安排更多的体育课程;其次,希望学校能够制定固定的时间表来保证课外活动的时间。再次,希望全体教员也能参与其中。
落款: Yours sincerely,  特别提醒sincerely后面逗号不能丢;
签名: Li Ming    特别注意 Ming 后面一定不能出现句点。
Dear Mr. President,
   It is my great honor to write to you. As far as I am concerned, we have enough extraordinary lectures and what we need now is physical exercise.
   Since most of the time is spent in watching TV and playing computer games, our physical conditions are not good enough. i still have some suggestions for you. To begin with, our university should arrange more PE classes. To continue, we should have a fixed schedule for a certain time of outdoor activity. What is more, teaching faculty should be involved in the same kind of physical exercise.
   I hope that our university could take the responsibility for our students’ physical health. I will be highly grateful if you could take my suggestions into account.  
                                                             Yours sincerely,
         Li Ming
Part B
52. Directions:
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
 1)describe the drawing briefly,
 2)interpret its intended meaning, and
 3)give your comments.
You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET (20 points)
   As is vividly described in the left part of the drawing, thirty years ago, there stood a delicate mother, holding the tiny hand of a lovely girl, who wore a red scarf. On the contrary, the right part of the picture illustrates that with time flying quickly, the little girl, who has already grown up as a gorgeous lady, is supporting her old mother. We are informed: accompanying.
   It is without saying that the old and the young are two indispensable parts in society. On the one hand, what we have and enjoy now was created by our parents in the early days, as the old Chinese saying goes, "One generation plants tress under whose shade another generation rests". On the other hand, all of us are supposed to take good care of the youngsters, too. It is children who make us see the future of our state, for they are the future builders of our country.
   The young should consider it a moral obligation respecting and taking care of old parents. Meanwhile, it is also the duty of the parents to protect, educate and look after the youths. Let's bear this in mind and cultivate that virtue together, because only by doing so, can we feel as if we were living in a happy and harmonious family.