离2018 年12月大学英语四六级考试还有20来天的时间同学们都已经进入了紧张的复习阶段，每次的四六级考试都牵动着几百万大学学子的心，文都考研英语名师何凯文老师四六级课程都十分受欢迎。以下就是这次“2018 年12月何凯文四六级考前点拨辅导讲义”原文。
2018 年12 月大学英语四六级考前提分班辅导讲义
Part 1.News report & Lecture News reports:
Directions: In this section, you will hear three news reports. At the end of each news report, you will hear two or three questions. Both the news report and the questions will be spoken only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 1 and 2 will be based on the following news item.
1. A) Christmas-time attacks made by Somali rebels.
B) An explosion at a bus station in central Nairobi.
C) The killing of more than 70 Ugandans in Kampala.
D) Blasts set off by a Somali group in Uganda’s capital.
听力原文：Kenyan police say one person was killed and 26 injured in an explosion at a bus station in central Nairobi.
2. A) On Christmas Eve. C) During a security check.
A) Just before midnight. D) In the small hours of the morning.
听力原文：Some eyewitnesses report that a bag was about to be loaded on board, but it exploded during a security check.
Kenyan police say one person was killed and 26 injured in an explosion at a bus station in central Nairobi. The blast hit a bus about to set off for the Ugandan capital Kampala. Last July, the Somali group al-Shabab said it was behind the blasts in the Ugandan capital which killed more than 70 people. Will Ross reports from the Kenyan capital.
The explosion happened beside a bus which was about to set off for an overnight journey from Nairobi to the Ugandan capital Kampala. Some eyewitnesses report that a bag was about to be loaded on board, but it exploded during a security check. Windows of the red bus were left smashed, and blood could be seen on the ground beside the vehicle. Just hours earlier, Uganda’s police chief had warned of possible Christmas-time attacks by Somali rebels.
1. What is the news report mainly about?
2. When did the incident occur?
Questions 3 and 4 will be based on the following news item.
参考答案 ：1. B 2. C
Questions 5 to 7 are based on the news report you have just heard.
5. A) Inability to implement their business plans.
B) Inability to keep turning out novel products.
C) Lack of a successful business model of their own.
D) Failure to integrate innovation into their business.
6. A) It is the secret to business success.
B) It is the creation of something new.
C) It is a magic tool to bring big rewards.
D) It is an essential part of business culture.
7. A) Its hardworking employees.
B) Its flexible promotion strategy.
C) Its innovation culture.
D) Its willingness to make investments.
参考答案：D B C
Almost all companies recognize the importance of innovation today. (5)But not many are able to integrate innovation into their business. A commentary in the Shanghai Daily points out that innovation doesn’t mean piles of documents. It is something more practical. (6)The article says many people tend to assume that innovation just means the creation of something new. Actually, it’s more than that. It’s an attitude of doing things. A company should find ways to innovate not just in products but also in functions, business models and processes.
(7)The article cites the global giant Procter & Gamble as an example, saying a real innovative company should develop an innovation culture and use it as a primary tool for success. Procter & Gamble has a “Corporate Innovation Fund” which offers big rewards for high-risk ideas that succeed. It also has a special innovation facility for its employees. Sometimes its employees are released from their daily jobs for weeks and spend their time interacting in the innovation facility instead. In conclusion, the article says innovative ideas alone do not ensure success. It’s pointless unless there is a repeatable process in place to turn inspiration into financial performance.
Questions 3 to 4 are based on the news report you have just heard.
3. A) How college students can improve their sleep habits.
B) Why sufficient sleep is important for college students.
C) Why college students are more likely to have stress problems.
D) How college students can handle their psychological problems.
4. A) It is not easy to improve one’s sleep habits.
B) It is not good for students to play video games.
C) Students who are better prepared generally get higher scores in examinations.
D) Making last-minute preparations for tests may be less effective than sleeping.
(1)You probably think college students are experts at sleeping, but parties, preparations for tests, personal problems and general stress can wreck a student’s sleep habits, which can be bad for the body and for the mind. Texas Tech University is even offering a class called Improving Your Sleep Habits. People suffering from sleep loss are at an increased risk from obesity, psychological problems and car crashes. Students who don’t get enough sleep have poor attendance and lower grades. On top of all that, a new study published in the journal (2) Learning and Memory finds you are probably better off sleeping than making last-minute preparations for a test. Two hundred college kids were taught to play some unfamiliar video games. Subjects who learned the games in the morning lost some skills when they played again 12 hours later, but they did much better after getting a good night’s sleep. So if you really want to do your job well, don’t forget to get some sleep.
Questions 1 and 2 are based on the news report you have just heard.
1. What is the news report mainly about?
2. What is the finding of the new study published in the journal Learning and Memory?
Directions: In this section, you will hear recordings of lectures or talks followed by some questions. The recordings will be played only once. After you hear a question, you must choose the best answer from the four choices marked A), B), C) and D). Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 1 with a single line through the centre.
Now listen to the following recording and answer questions 16 to 19.
16. A) They investigate the retirement homes in America.
B) They are on issues facing senior citizens in America.
C) They describe the great pleasures of the golden years.
D) They are filled with fond memories of his grandparents.
听 力 原 文 ： Hello Ladies and Gentleman, it gives me great pleasure to introduce our keynote speaker for today’s session, Dr. Howard Miller. Dr. Miller, Professor of Sociology at Washington University, has written numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years. Dr. Miller:
17. A) The loss of the ability to take care of himself.
B) The feeling of not being important any more.
C) Being unable to find a good retirement home.
D) Leaving the home he had lived in for 60 years.
听力原文：My grandfather spoke of his greatest fear, that of leaving the only home they had known for the past 60 years.
18. A) The loss of identity and self-worth.
B) Fear of being replaced or discarded.
C) Freedom from pressure and worldly cares.
D) The possession of wealth and high respect.
听力原文：For them and some older Americans, their so-called “golden years” are at times not so pleasant, for this period can mean the decline of not only one’s health but the loss of identity and self-worth.
19. A) The urgency of pension reform.
B) Medical care for senior citizens.
C) Finding meaningful roles for the elderly in society.
D) The development of public facilities for senior citizens.
听力原文：Now, many of the lectures given at this conference have focused on the issues of pension reform, medical care, and the development of public facilities for senior citizens. And while these are vital issues that must be addressed, I’d like to focus my comments on an important issue that will affect the overall success of the other programs mentioned. This has to do with changing our perspectives on what it means to be a part of this group, and finding meaningful roles the elderly can play and should play in our societies.
Now listen to the following recording and answer questions 16 to 19.
Hello Ladies and Gentleman, it gives me great pleasure to introduce our keynote speaker for today’s session, Dr. Howard Miller. Dr. Miller, Professor of Sociology at Washington University, has written numerous articles and books on the issues facing older Americans in our graying society for the past 15 years.
Thank you for that introduction. Today, I’d like to preface my remarks with a story from my own life which I feel highlights the common concerns that bring us here together. Several years ago when my grandparents were
well into their eighties, they were faced with the reality of no longer being able to adequately care for themselves. My grandfather spoke of his greatest fear, that of leaving the only home they had known for the past 60 years. Fighting back the tears, he spoke proudly of the fact that he had built their home from the ground up, and that he had pounded every nail and laid every brick in the process. The prospect of having to sell their home and give up their independence, and move into a retirement home was an extremely painful experience for them. It was, in my grandfather’s own words, like having a limb cut off. He exclaimed in a forceful manner that he felt he wasn’t important anymore.
For them and some older Americans, their so-called “golden years” are at times not so pleasant, for this period can mean the decline of not only one’s health but the loss of identity and self-worth. In many societies, this self-identity is closely related with our social status, occupation, material possessions, or independence. Furthermore, we often live in societies that value what is “new” or in fashion, and our own usage of words in the English language is often a sign of bad news for older Americans. I mean how would your family react if you came home tonight exclaiming, “Hey, come to the living room and see the OLD black and white TV I brought!” Unfortunately, the word “old” calls to mind images of the need to replace or discard.
Now, many of the lectures given at this conference have focused on the issues of pension reform, medical care, and the development of public facilities for senior citizens. And while these are vital issues that must be addressed, I’d like to focus my comments on an important issue that will affect the overall success of the other programs mentioned. This has to do with changing our perspectives on what it means to be a part of this group, and finding meaningful roles the elderly can play and should play in our societies.
First of all, I’d like to talk about . . .
16. What does the introduction say about Dr. Howard Miller’s articles and books?
17. What is the greatest fear of Dr. Miller’s grandfather?
18. What does Dr. Miller say the “golden years” can often mean?
19. What is the focus of Dr. Miller’s speech?
Now listen to the following recording and answer questions 20 to 22.
20. A) It seriously impacts their physical and mental development.
B) It has become a problem affecting global economic growth.
C) It is a common problem found in underdeveloped countries.
D) It is an issue often overlooked by parents in many countries.
听力原文：It notes that, in recent years, experts have come to the conclusion that undernourishment between conception and a child’s second birthday can have serious and long-lasting impacts.
21. A) They will live longer. C) They get along well with people.
B) They get better pay. D) They develop much higher IQs.
听力原文：And then at adulthood, IFPRI has actually demonstrated that children who were better nourished have higher wages, by a pretty large margin, by 46 percent.”
22. A) Appropriated funds to promote research of nutrient-rich foods.
B) Encouraged breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life.
C) Recruited volunteers to teach rural people about health and nutrition.
D) Targeted hunger-relief programs at pregnant women and young children.
听力原文：Ruel says in the 1980s Thailand was able to reduce child undernourishment by recruiting a large number of volunteers to travel the countryside teaching about health and nutrition.
Now listen to the following recording and answer questions 20 to 22.
The 2010 Global Hunger Index report was released today by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). It notes that, in recent years, experts have come to the conclusion that undernourishment
between conception and a child’s second birthday can have serious and long-lasting impacts.
Undernourishment during this approximately 1,000-day window can seriously check the growth and development of children and render them more likely to get sick and die than well-fed children. Preventing hunger allows children to develop both physically and mentally.
Says IFPRI’s Marie Ruel, “They will be more likely to perform well in school. They will stay in school longer. And then at adulthood, IFPRI has actually demonstrated that children who were better nourished have higher wages, by a pretty large margin, by 46 percent.”
Ruel says that means the productivity of a nation’s future generations depends in a large part on the first 1,000 days of life.
“This is why we’re all on board in focusing on those thousand days to improve nutrition. After that, the damage is done and is highly irreversible.”
The data on nutrition and childhood development has been slowly coming together for decades. But Ruel says scientific consensus alone will not solve the problem.
“It’s not enough that nutritionists know you have to intervene then, if we don’t have the politicians on board, and also the...people that implement [programs] in the field.”
Ruel says there are encouraging signs that politicians and implementers are beginning to get on board. Many major donors and the United Nations are targeting hunger-relief programs at pregnant women and young children. They focus on improving diets or providing micro-food supplements. They improve access to pre-birth care and encourage exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of a child’s life.
Ruel says in the 1980s Thailand was able to reduce child undernourishment by recruiting a large number of volunteers to travel the countryside teaching about health and nutrition.
“They really did very active promotion of diversity in the diet and good eating habits. So they were providing more food to people, but also educating people on how to use them, and also educating people on how to feed their young children.”
Ruel says countries may take different approaches to reducing child undernutrition. But she says nations will not make progress fighting hunger and poverty until they begin to focus on those critical first thousand days.
20. What is the experts’ conclusion regarding children’s undernourishment in their earliest days of life?
21. What does IFPRI’s Marie Ruel say about well-fed children in their adult life?
22. What did Thailand do to reduce child undernourishment in the 1980s?
参考答案：16.B 17. D 18. A 19. C20. A 21.B 22.C
Part2. Long Conversation
[A] To go sightseeing. [B] To have meetings.
[C] To promote a new champagne. [D] To join in a training program.
M: Hi, Ann, welcome back. How’s your trip to the states? W: Very busy, I had a lot of meetings. …
19. Why did the woman go to New York?
[A] Data collection. [B] Training consultancy.
[C] Corporate management. [D] Information processing.
W: What’s your line of business, Mr. Johnson? M: We are a training consultancy.
25. What is the man’s line of business?
Part 3. Passages
29.A) Michael’s parents got divorced. B) Karen was adopted by Ray Anderson.
C) Karen’s mother died in a car accident. D) A truck driver lost his life in a collision.
The impact of the collision killed Karen’s mother instantly, but she was left trapped in the burning car.
A) At a local club. C) At the sports center
B) At Joe’s house. D) At the bearing school.
Joe is a day student, but I am a boarding student. We haven’t been in same classes, sports or extra-curricular activities. Nonetheless, I spend nearly every weekend at his house and we talk on the phone every night.
A) It poses a challenge to seniors. B) It saves both time and money.
C) It is childish and unprofessional. D) It is cool and convenient.
W: He said he'd never text message. He thinks it's very childish and unprofessional to text message. M: Yeah, I can see what he means. It's considered pretty informal to text message someone.
2018 年 12 月四六级必背十句话：
1. Young people should be encouraged to broaden their horizons with more activities to embrace this world, which is the best way for them to get a clear perspective of what they are hoping to do with their lives and why. Students with such a perspective are usually the most efficient and motivated ones who can gain competitive edge in the future career. 年轻人应该多和这个社会接触拓宽他们的视野，这样可以清楚的知道他们想要的是什么以及为什么。 有这样视野的学生常常是效率最高的也是最积极的，在未来的职业中也会获得竞争的优势。
Young people should be encouraged to broaden their horizons with reading more books of great value, which is the best way for them to get a clear perspective of this world. Students with such a perspective are usually the most efficient and motivated ones who can gain competitive edge in the future career.(阅读的 习惯)
Young people should be encouraged to think different and acquire the ability to defend their own ideas, which is the best way to get a full understanding of this world. Students with such capability are usually the most creative and motivated ones who can gain competitive edge in the near future. (替换句)
2. The cultivation of teamwork spirit and cooperative ability was, is and remains to be an integral part in achieving one's personal accomplishment. 团队协作能力的合作精神的培养对于实现个人成就而言，过去是，现在，而且一直都会是重要因素。 The cultivation of decent behavior norms was, is and remains to be an indispensable part in fulfilling one’s personal success. (替换句)
3. Life skills are very important and by doing voluntary work, students can learn how to communicate with others and work in a team but also to manage their time and improve their organizational skills. 生活的技能非常重要，通过参加志愿者工作，学生就能学会如何与他人沟通，如何成为团队的一员， 同时学会如果管理时间，并提高自己的组织技能。
The ability of setting clear aim is usually counted as one of the essential factors contributing to success.
The ability to seize the opportunity is usually counted as one of the essential factors /contributing to success.
4. The skill to balance study and work contributes directly to enhancing our academic performance, job hunting and promotion in a system. 平衡学习和工作关系的技能直接有利于我们的学习，求职以及以后的升职。
The good family education contributes directly to one’s academic improvement/ with the good learning habit and one’s career success/ with the good communication skills. 良好的家庭教育将因为好的学习习惯而有利于学习，因为好的沟通技能而有利于事业。
5. The social practice will provide us with more opportunities to develop our interpersonal communication skills, which may put us in a favorable position in the job market. 社会实践能提供给我们更多的机会来培养人际沟通技能，这样使我们在未来的职场上处于有利的位 置。
The ability to make the right choice at the right moment will provide us with the possibility to save more time and energy, which may put us in a favorable position in the job market.
1. Over the decade the pace of change in people’s life has increased beyond our wildest expectations. Among the breakthroughs driving changes is the wide use of smart devices, (the artificial intelligence) which makes online shopping or online learning possible and more convenient. 在过去十年间，人们生活改变的步伐之快超越了我们最狂野的想象。在推动这些改变的突破中包括 智能设备的广泛使用，这使得网络学习和购物成为可能并变得更方便。
2. With the government’s will and public awareness, corresponding effective measures could really reduce the amount of rubbish we produce. Certainly nobody wants to see our resources used up and our planet poisoned by waste. 有了政府的决心和公众的意识，相应的有效的措施就真的能减少我们制造的垃圾。确实，没有人希 望看到我们的资源被耗尽我们的地球被废弃物污染。
With the government’s will and public awareness, corresponding effective measures could really curb the worrying and even terrifying problem of haze. Certainly nobody wants to see our beautiful homeland destroyed and our children’s health threatened by smog.
3. In my opinion, focusing on sports facilities is too narrow an approach and would not have the desired results. Youngsters should be encouraged not only to be more physically active but also to adopt a healthier lifestyle. 在我看来，仅仅关注运动设施是很有限的解决手段而且也不可能得到全部想要的结果。 年轻人不仅应该多锻炼而且应该采取更健康的生活方式。
In my opinion, the simple limit of car-driving is too narrow an approach and would not have the desired results. Environmental preservation should be enhanced not only with concrete do or do not list but also with the promotion of people’s awareness.
4. However, these issues can be addressed strategically within the proper policy adopted.
Long-term traffic and pollution reductions would depend on educating the public to use public transport more, and on (governments using public money to construct and run efficient systems.) 要想长期解决污染问题就需要教育公众多使用公共交通，多用公共资金来建设并运营高效的系统。 The shared bicycle and other form of shared economy are the possible solutions to the current sorry state of affairs.
5. We must avoid overindulgence and conspicuous consumption. We must instead continue to recognize the benefits of thrift in order to protect our newfound prosperity. 我们必须避免过分放纵和铺张浪费。相反，我们应该继续发扬节俭的优点以守护我们新获得的繁荣。
四.Reading in depth
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
Universities Branch Out
A) As never before in their long history, universities have become instruments of national competition as well as instruments of peace. They are the place of the scientific discoveries that move economies forward, and the primary means of educating the talent required to obtain and maintain competitive advantage. But at the same time, the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services, information and especially people has made universities a powerful force for global integration, mutual understanding and geopolitical stability.
B) In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy, universities have become more self-consciously global: seeking students from around the world who represent the entire range of cultures and values, sending their own students abroad to prepare them for global careers, offering courses of study that
address the challenges of an interconnected world and collaborative ( 合 作 的 ) research programs to advance
science for the benefit of all humanity.
C) Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping than the movement across borders. Over the past three decades the number of students leaving home each year to study abroad has grown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800,000 in 1975 to 2.5 million in 2004. Most travel from one developed nation to another, but the flow from developing to developed countries is growing rapidly. The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries, is on the rise, too. Today foreign students earn 30 percent of the doctoral degrees awarded in the United States and 38 percent of those in the United Kingdom. And the number crossing borders for undergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of the undergraduates at America’s best institutions and 10 percent of all undergraduates in the U.K. In the United States, 20 percent of the newly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born, and in China many newly hired faculty members at the top research universities received their graduate education abroad.
D) Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of their undergraduate years in another country. In Europe, more than 140,000 students participate in the Erasmus program each year, taking courses for credit in one of 2,200 participating institutions across the continent. And in the United States, institutions are helping place
students in summer internships (实习) abroad to prepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led the
way, offering every undergraduate at least one international study or internship opportunity—and providing the financial resources to make it possible.
E) Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One new trend involves sourcing portions of a research program to another country. Yale professor and Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator Tian Xu directs a research center focused on the genetics of human disease at Shanghai’s Fudan University, in collaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. The Shanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a 4,300-square-meter laboratory facility. Yale faculty, postdoctors and graduate students visit regularly and attend videoconference seminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangement benefits both countries; Xu’s Yale lab is more productive, thanks to the lower costs of conducting research in China, and Chinese graduate students, postdoctors and faculty get on-the-job training from a world-class scientist and his U.S. team.
F) As a result of its strength in science, the United States has consistently led the world in the commercialization of major new technologies, from the mainframe computer and the integrated circuit of the1960s to the Internet infrastructure ( 基 础 设 施 ) and applications software of the 1990s. The link betweenuniversity-based science and industrial application is often indirect but sometimes highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created by Stanford University, and Route 128 outside Boston has long housed companies spun off from MIT and Harvard. Around the world, governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps most successfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores of other leading software and biotechnology companies have set up shop around the university.
G) For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant about sustaining the research-university model. Most politicians recognize the link between investment in science and national economic strength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. The budget of the National Institutes of Health doubled between 1998 and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since then. Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pace with inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lost ground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady, predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term GDP growth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
H) American politicians have great difficulty recognizing that admitting more foreign students can greatly promote the national interest by increasing international understanding. Adjusted for inflation, public funding for international exchanges and foreign-language study is well below the levels of 40 years ago. In the wake of September 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic decline in the number of foreign students seeking admission to U.S. universities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia, Singapore and the U.K. Objections from American university and business leaders led to improvements in the process and a reversal of the decline, but the United States is still seen by many as unwelcoming to international students.
I) Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation’s well-being through their scientific research, but many fear that foreign students threaten American competitiveness by taking their knowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcoming foreign students to the United States has two important positive effects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and—like immigrants throughout history—strengthen the nation; and second, foreign students who study in the United States become ambassadors
for many of its most cherished (珍视) values when they return home. Or at least they understand them better. InAmerica as elsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective in promoting peace and stability as welcoming international university students.
注意:此部分试题请在答题卡 2 上作答。
46. American universities prepare their undergraduates for global careers by giving them chances for international study or internship.
47. Since the mid-1970s, the enrollment of overseas students has increased at an annual rate of 3.9 percent.
48. The enrollment of international students will have a positive impact on America rather than threaten its competitiveness.
49. The way research is carried out in universities has changed as a result of globalization.
50. Of the newly hired professors in science and engineering in the United States, twenty percent come from foreign countries.
51. The number of foreign students applying to U.S. universities decreased sharply after September 11 due to changes in the visa process.
52. The U.S. federal funding for research has been unsteady for years.
53. Around the world, governments encourage the model of linking university-based science and industrial application.
54. Present-day universities have become a powerful force for global integration.
55. When foreign students leave America, they will bring American values back to their home countries.
深度阅读之选择题： 解题要诀：定位;替换; 主题;句子理解; 例子一：
There is no doubt that spaceflight entails risks, and to pioneer a new mode of travel is to face those risks, and to reduce them with the benefit of hard-won experience.
What does the author think of private space travel?
A) It is worth promoting despite the risks involved.
B) It should not be confined to the rich only.
C) It should be strictly regulated.
D) It is too risky to carry on.
With the exception of South Africa, the only light rail metro system in sub-Saharan Africa is in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Traffic jam leads to expense and unpredictability, things that keep investors away.
Why is sub-Saharan Africa unappealing to investors?
A) It lacks adequate transport facilities.
B) The living expenses there are too high.
C) It is on the whole too densely populated.
D) The local governments are corrupted.
It's possible to admire Oprah Winfrey and still wish Harvard hadn't awarded her an honorary doctor of law degree and the commencement (毕业典礼) speaker spot at yesterday's graduation. There's no question Oprah's achievements place her in the temple of American success stories. Talent, charm, and an exceptional work ethic have rarely hurled anyone as far as they have this former abused teenage mother from rural Mississippi who became one of the world's most successful entertainment icons and the first African-American female billionaire.
Honorary degrees are often conferred on non-academic leaders in the arts, business, and politics. Harvard's list in recent years has included Kofi Annan, Bill Gates, Meryl Streep, and David Souter. But Oprah's particular brand of celebrity is not a good fit for the values of a university whose motto ( 座 右 铭 ),Veritas, means truth. Oprah's passionate advocacy extends, unfortunately, to a hearty embrace of fake science.
61. Why does the author deem it inappropriate for Harvard to confer an honorary degree on Oprah Winfrey?
A. She did not specialize in the study of law.
B. She was known as s supporter of fake science. C. She was an icon of the entertainment industry. D. She had not distinguished herself academically.
62. What do we learn about Oprah Winfrey from the passage?
A. She was a distinguished graduate of Harvard School of Law. B. She worked her way to success in the entertainment industry. C. She used to abuse her children when she was a young mother.
D. She achieved her fame through persistent advocacy of fake science.
We sometimes think humans are uniquely vulnerable to anxiety, but stress seems to affect the immune defenses of lower animals too.
题目：1. The passage tells us that the most probable reason for the death of the mice in Ader’s experiment was that
A) they had been weakened psychologically by the saccharin
B) the sweetener was poisonous to them
C) their immune systems had been altered by the mind
D) they had taken too much sweetener during earlier conditioning
2. It can be concluded from the passage that the immune systems of animals .
A) can be weakened by mind B) can be suppressed by drug injections
C) can be affected by frequent doses of saccharin
D) can be altered by electric shocks
Eg2. 主题词：反复出现的名词 weak dollar
52. Why do Americans feel humiliated? A.Their economy is plunging B.Their currency has slumped C.They can't afford trips to Europe D. They have lost half of their assets.
53. ow does the current dollar affect the life of ordinary Americans? A.They have to cancel their vacations in New York.
B.They find it unaffordable to dine in mom-and-pop restaurants. C.They have to spend more money when buying imported goods. D.They might lose their jobs due to potential economic problems.
54. How do many Europeans feel about the U.S with the devalued dollar? A.They feel contemptuous of it.
B.They are sympathetic with it.
C.They regard it as a superpower on the decline. D.They think of it as a good tourist destination.
55. what is the author's advice to Americans? A.They treat the dollar with a little respect B.They try to win in the weak-dollar gamble C.They vacation at home rather than abroad D.They treasure their marriages all the more 不要忘了福利，享受这份小确幸：
56. What do some most influential medical groups recommend doctors do?
A) Reflect on the responsibilities they are supposed to take.
B) Pay more attention to the effectiveness of their treatments.
C) Take costs into account when making treatment decisions.
D) Readjust their practice in view of the cuts in health care.
57. What were doctors mainly concerned about in the past?
A) Specific medicines to be used. C) Professional advancement.
B) Effects of medical treatment. D) Patients' trust.
59. What risk do doctors see in their dual role as patient care providers and financial overseers?
A)They may be involved in a conflict of interest. B)They may be forced to divide their attention.
C) They may have to use less effective drugs.
D) They may lose the respect of patients.
61. What is Arum and Roksa’s finding about higher education in America?
A) It aims at stimulating the intellectual curiosity of college students.
B) It fails to prepare students to face the challenges of modem times.
C) It has experienced dramatic changes in recent years.
D) It has tried hard to satisfy students’ various needs.
62. What is responsible for the students’ lack of higher-level skills in modern times?
A) The diluted college curriculum.
B) The boring classroom activities.
C) The absence of rigorous discipline.
D) The outdated educational approach.
Part IV Translation (30 minutes) Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. You should write your answer on Answer Sheet 2.
剪纸(paper cutting)是中国最为流行的传统民间艺术形式之一。中国剪纸 有一千五百多年的历史,在明
朝和清朝时期(the Ming and Qing Dynasties)特别 流行。人们常用剪纸美化居家环境。特别是在春节和婚庆 期间,剪纸被用来装饰 门窗和房间,以增加喜庆的气氛。剪纸最常用的颜色是红色,象征健康和兴旺。 中国 剪纸在世界各地很受欢迎,经常被用作馈赠外国友人的礼物。
Part IV Translation
Paper cutting is one of China’s most popular traditional folk arts. Chinese paper cutting has a history of more than 1,500 years. It was widespread particularly during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. People often beautify their homes with paper cuttings. During the Spring Festival and wedding celebrations, in particular, paper cuttings are used to decorate doors, windows and rooms in order to enhance the joyous atmosphere. The color most frequently used in paper cutting is red, which symbolizes health and prosperity. Chinese paper cutting is very popular around the world and it is often given as a present to foreign friends.
黄海是世界上最大的浅海地区之一，平均深度为44米，最大深度为152米，其名字源于黄河的黄色沙。 由于冬季和夏季季风的影响，海洋的气候波动不定。夏季有暖流，而冬季海水变得非常冷，可能导致内海 的一部分结冰。黄海是中国北方经济最发达的地区之一，拥有沿海农业、海上贸易、交通和渔业。作为生 态保护计划的一部分，世界自然基金会(WWF) 选择了黄海作为“沿海杰出的海洋生态系统范例”
Named for the yellowish sand – which originates from the Yellow River – that colours its water, the Yellow Sea is one of the largest shallow areas of continental shelf in the world with an average depth of 44 metres and a maximum depth of 152 metres.
The climate of the sea fluctuates due to winter and summer Monsoon conditions. In the summer warm currents are present, while the water becomes very cold in winter and can cause parts of the inner sea to freeze over.
The Yellow Sea is one of the most developed economic areas in North China with coastal farming, maritime trade and traffic and fisheries. As part of its Ecoregion conservation programme WWF selected the Yellow Sea as an ‘outstanding example of coastal marine ecosystems.’
许多专家对三峡工程项目进行了调查和筹备工作。但由于历史的原因和资源的匮乏, 项目的发展仍然 只是一个梦想。建国以后, 该项目又重新列入议程。经过专家细致的可行性研究, 最终得出结论, 该项目的 优点远远大于其缺点。该项目还提出了一些令人生畏的问题，应该得到妥善处理和解决，以避免任何可能 的不利影响。这包括人口的重新安置、环境保护、筹资等。中国政府和人民坚信，依靠自己的力量，通过 国际合作，他们一定能够把三峡工程建设好。
Later, numerous experts conducted investigations on and preparatory work for the project. But because of historic reasons and lack of resources, the development of the project remained only a dream. Since the founding of the People’Republic of China, the project was back on the agenda. After careful feasibility studies by experts, it was finally concluded that the merits of the project far overweigh its demerits. The project also presents daunting problems which should be properly handled and solved to avoid any possible undesired impacts. These include resettlement of population, environmental protection, fund raising, etc. The Chinese government and people
are confident that, relying mainly on their own efforts and also through international cooperation, they will successfully build the Three Gorges Project well.
2018 年 12 月翻译中一定会用到的表达：
1. Sth gradually developed a style which featured …
2. Sth can be classified into several categories:…
3. One Belt and One Road Initiative
4. hina has made great headway in narrowing the gap among different social classes.
5. The core of “harmonious society” is “human-centered,” which means the improvement of people’s livelihood.
6. We not only aspire to build China into a prosperous, strong and modern socialist country, but also into a democratic, culturally advanced and harmonious one.
7. During the long course of history, the Chinese people have, working with diligence, bravery and wisdom, created a beautiful homeland where all ethnic groups live in harmony, and developed a great and dynamic culture
8. Chinese nation has made an indelible contribution to the progress of human civilization.
9. Sth has become one of the most popular …
Sth has been regarded as one of …
10. We can see…, enjoy…and learn of the legend and anecdotes about…
11. Sth is a combination of …, dating back to…
12. policy coordination, facilities connectivity, unimpeded trade, financial integration, and people-to-people bonds as the five major goals.
13. Sth ， with a history of… years and a number of …branches/ styles , is an important part of Chinese traditional culture.
14. High speed railroad is introduced in 2004. With the generous funding from the government, it is rapidly expanding.
15. Sth is familiar to everyone, about which however people’s opinions differ.
16. Honor the aged of other family as we honor our own; Care for the children of other family as we care for our own.
17. Respecting the aged and loving the young，a the traditional Chinese virtue, has been regarded as the social responsibility and behavior norm for thousands years.
Filial Piety, a Chinese traditional virtue, is central to Confucian role ethics.
18. Learning without thinking leads to confusion; thinking without learning ends in danger.
19. Chinese characters evolve from pictures and signs. The style of the calligraphers symbolize their age.
20. China is the birthplace of ...
附录：2018 年 12 月四六级作文中一定能用到的语料：
( 1 ) We have been always considering sth (recreational activities) as something to relax ourselves or something that can add color to the dull routine of everyday life.
(2)Sth will make our life more enjoyable, that is to say, sth can add color to the dull routine of everyday life. Sth 可以使我们的生活更加有乐趣，也就是说，sth 为我们每天枯燥的生活增添了一些色彩。
(3)For the majority of people, (reading or learning a new skill)/(reading news from the weibo or learning
moments of their friends on the Wechat) has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness and contentment in this modern society.
(4)Furthermore, students visiting their own home frequently would have more accesses and opportunities to communicate with their parents, which have beneficial impact on development of their personal character.
(5)Sth, by occupying spare time so constructively, makes a person contented, with no time for boredom.
( 6 ) Sth does not occupy students’ too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
Sth 不会占据学生太多的时间.实际上让他们把所有的时间都花在学习上也是不健康的，就如一 句俗话所说：劳逸结合。
( 7 ) What’ s more, online shopping can save us a great deal of time on the way between home and the department stores, so we would be able to concentrate more time and energy on our meaningful work.
(1)Little by little, our knowledge will be well enriched, and our horizons will be greatly broadened.
(2)For people who want to adopt a healthy and meaningful life style, it is important to find time to learn certain new knowledge. Just as an old saying goes: it is never too late to learn.
(3)The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets.
(4)Additional educational activities enjoy obvious advantage. By extra studies, many maintain, youngsters are able to obtain many kinds of practical skills and useful knowledge, which will put them in a beneficial position in the future job markets.
( 5 ) By taking a major-related part-job, students can not only improve their academic studies, but gain much experience, experience they will never be able to get from the textbooks.
( 6 ) Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their job opportunities or promotion opportunities.
( 7 ) In the first place, extra studies bring about unhealthy impacts on physical growth of children. Educational experts point out that, it is equally important to take some sport activities instead of extra studies when children have spent the whole day in a boring classroom.
(1)Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that some certain sports contribute directly to our health by giving us some physical exercises.
( 2 ) As a matter of fact, travel has become part of our life. This situation is encouraging, for it not only broadens people's minds to the extend which may not be reached previously, but also relaxes them physically, which help people conquer mental problems more actively.
(3)Pollution poses a great threat to our existence.
Some of the…are poisonous and dangerous to health.
( 4 ) Environmental experts point out that increasing pollution not only causes serious problems such as global warming but also could directly threaten the quality of our lives.
(5)…Under considerable pressure from… therefore…will only add to their burden.
(6)I see three kinds of pressure working on people today: pressure from education, family and career. It is easy to blame the school for charging too much money, the family members for the heavy burden, the society for the fierce competition. I think people should relax. It is important for them to keep a good mood under whatever circumstances.
(7)Moreover, children will have less time to play and communicate with their peers due to extra studies, consequently, it is difficult to develop and cultivate their character and interpersonal skills. They may become more solitary and even suffer from certain mental illness.
( 1 ) sth can give students team-spirit and teach them how to cooperate with others. Because in those activities, students usually need to cooperate with others in order to get good achievement.
Sth 可以赋予学生们团队精神，并教会他们学会与人合作。因为在这些活动中，学生通常需要相互合 作目的是得到提高。
(1)In the last decades, advances in mobile Internet technology have made it possible for people to enjoy the more convenient life style.
(2)Admittedly, this policy has made it possible for the public to realize the importance of environmental protection and enable our citizens to cherish the beauty of our communities.
(3)Although many people claim that, along with the rapid economic development, the number of people
who use bicycle is decreasing and bicycle is bound to die out. The awareness of environmental preservation and the new form of shared economy, which brings about the booming of mobike and ofo, will revive the use of bicycle and change our way of life. .
(1)Most people are under the illusion that a college degree guarantees success. There is no such guarantee without hard work.
( 2 ) While the inclination to procrastinate is common, one must fully consider the detrimental impact of unnecessary delays.
(3)The tendency to take things for granted is understandable, but the need for one to rationally evaluate the circumstances of any situation is absolutely essential.
( 4 ) From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw a conclusion that, although the parents' desire to look after children by themselves is understandable, its disadvantages far outweigh the advantages.
(5) From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that, although extra studies indeed enjoy many obvious advantages, its disadvantages shouldn't be ignored and far outweigh its advantages. It is absurd to force children to take extra studies after school.
( 6) While achieving success is easier said than done, perseverance does in fact pay off. One of the most important traits of a successful person is self-confidence, another is desire, and still another is determination.
(7)Independence offers many advantages, the first and foremost of which is self-determination.
(8)The most obvious and undisputable advantage of having different friend is that you can enjoy more kinds of amusement.
( 9 ) Most people are of the opinion that wealth provides solutions to all problems. But in spite of the material benefits wealth provides , I believe one should abandon the pursuit of materialism and instead concentrate on the pursuit of happiness.
( 1 ) We needs to reexamine the results of technology development in order to ascertain the benefits and indeed ( 表 示 加 强 含 义 ) the detrimental aspects from a new perspective. Otherwise, various perceived accomplishments might in fact prove to be far from beneficial .
(2)We must avoid overindulgence and conspicuous consumption . We must instead continue to recognize the benefits of thrift in order to protect our newfound prosperity.
(3)Many of the explanations offered thus far are at least to a certain extent valid, but none fully address the problem and the issue must be examined in a wider context.
( 4 ) There is little doubt that immediate action is required to eliminate the detrimental aspects of environmental pollution once and forever.
(5)Some months ago , a friend of mine was killed in a tragic automobile accident involving a drunk driver .
The incident was far from rare , and was in fact typical of thousands of cases involving drunk driving
(6)It is high time we put an end to the deplorable practice of food contamination .
(7)The most striking conclusion that can be reached when weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the new technology, such as smart phone and the like is quite frankly prosperity.
( 8 ) The ample evidence presented enables us to reasonably conclude that the scourge of haze will be brought under control in the foreseeable future.
(9)Today, a large amount of tradition has gradually disappeared, for instance stamp collecting.
As is shown above， 中心人物+动作. 第二句：图画造成影响;
There has been a heated discussion about this picture on the WeChat, the most influential social media in China.
1. The picture shows us that….
2. Simple and funny as this picture is, the symbolic meaning behind it is as deep as ocean.
第二段： 第一种写法： 第一句：介绍主题背景
1. Recently the issue of (whether …or not) has been in the limelight ( 成 为 引 人 注 目 的 中 心 ) and has aroused wide concern in the public.
2. Along with the advance of the society more and more problems are brought to our attention, one of which is ....
3. Recently, the issue of ...... has been brought into public focus.
近来， 的问题引起了社会的广泛关注。 第二句：分析利弊
On the one hand,… On the other hand …
1. There is no consensus of opinions among people as to … some people tend to have a favorable attitude toward…While, others have an unpleasant association with…
2. Most of us ，however，have formed a different picture of…some people think they are beneficial, while
others hold the opposite view.
1. And we rarely reach an absolute consensus on such a controversial issue.
2. People from different backgrounds would put different interpretations on the same case.
harbor the idea that, take the attitude that,
hold the view that, 认为
1. Perhaps there is an element of truth in both these pictures.
2. As far as I am concerned, I am inclined to be on the side of the former view.
3. After a thorough consideration, for my part, I am in favor of the former view.
A problem of modern society is the declining level of health in the general population, with conflicting views on how to tackle this worrying trend.
A problem of today youngster’s growth is the lack of independence, with various views on how to tackle this worrying trend.
A problem of modern society is the overuse of digital device and the overload of information, with conflicting views on how to tackle this worrying trend.
1. The graph shows how the number of museums and the people visited them changed between 2011 and 2016. We can clearly see a dramatic increase of both.
2. The number of the students taking part-time jobs increase slightly from the first year to the third year, as is clearly demonstrated in the chart above
3. What is clearly presented in the chart above is that the number of rural and urban population in China witnessed some changes during the past decades.
1. Portrayed in the above pie chart is a survey about college students’ purpose of travelling.
The number of students who take journey as a pretty opportunity to enjoy the natural beauty accounts for
37%.Meanwhile, those who deem travel as their way to relieve pressure take up 33%.
2. As is shown above, the chart illustrates the job satisfaction of the staff in a company. We can notice that people in the age group of 45 to 50 are least satisfied with their jobs, accounting for 64%, while those who are over 50 years old, being satisfied with their present situation most, occupy approximately 40%.
1. What accounts for this phenomenon? I can think of no better reasons for the phenomenon other than the following two
2. The following factors, from where I stand, are responsible for this phenomenon.
3. Obviously, a variety of complicated factors contribute to the situation, with the following two being the foremost.
1. To sum up, it’s predictable that this trend will continue in the future from the perspective of what has been discussed above.
2. In a nutshell, from what we have discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that travelling performs an indispensable role in the perspective of university students.
3. In a word, from the analysis above, this trend may not stop in a short period of time. We should fully use the benefits and the advantages brought by this tendency/phenomenon and guard against the possible adverse effects caused by it. Only in this way can we hope to see a reasonable and rational scene in which people can enjoy their life to the utmost.